In this article, we detailed explained What Is Automobile, What Is Automobile Engineering | What Is Automobile Company, And What Is Automobile Industry.
- 1 What Is Automobile?
- 2 History Of Automobile
- 3 Types Of Automobile
- 4 Major Parts Of The Automobile
- 5 Clutch
- 6 Transmission System
- 7 Ignition System
- 8 Cooling System
- 9 Lubrication System
- 10 Universal Joint
- 11 Differential
- 12 Front Axle
- 13 Aerodynamics
- 14 Fundamental Concept
- 15 FAQ’s
What Is Automobile?
An automobile, by name auto, also called a motorcar or car, is usually a four-wheeled vehicle designed primarily for passenger transportation and usually powered by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel.
An automobile is a self-propelled vehicle that has a source of power for its propulsion and is used to carry passengers and goods to the ground, such as cars, buses, trucks, etc.
History Of Automobile
The History Of Automobile, its invention and manufacture first started in Germany. In 1769 the first self-propelled road vehicles were poWhat Is Automobilewered by steam engines built by Joseph Cugnot.
The world’s first three-wheeled automobile with the Otto Cycle petrol engine (an internal combustion engine) was built in 1885 by Karl Benz of Germany and granted a patent on 29 January 1886. At the same time, another team from Germany, viz., Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach built and patented the first motorcycle.
Soon after, Benz also invented an accelerator for speed regulation, a battery ignition system, a spark plug, a clutch, a gear shift, and a radiator for cooling the engine. With these improvements, he began production of the world’s first automobile in 1888.
However, it was in the year 1893 that the first four-wheeled automobile was introduced by him in the history of automobiles. It was fitted with a four stroke engine of his design.
Almost concurrently, Daimler and Maybach also produced about thirty vehicles from 1890 to 1895 at the Daimler Works and the Hotel Hermann. Daimler died in 1900 but continued to produce them.
Types Of Automobile
1. On the Basis of Load :
- Heavy transport vehicle (HTV) / heavy motor vehicle (HMV)
- Light transport vehicle (LTV) / Light motor vehicle (LMV),
2. On the Basis of Wheels :
- Two wheeler vehicle. Example : Scooter, motorcycle, scooty.
- Three wheeler vehicle. Example : Autorickshaw,
- Four wheeler vehicle. Example : Car, jeep, trucks, buses.
- Six wheeler vehicle,
3. On the Basis of Fuel Used :
- Petrol vehicle, e.g. motorcycle, scooter, cars.
- Diesel vehicles, e.g. trucks, buses.
- An electric vehicle that uses a battery to drive.
- Steam vehicle, e.g. an engine that uses a steam engine.
- Gas vehicles, e.g. LPG and CNG vehicles, where LPG is liquefied.
4. Based on Transmission :
- Conventional vehicles with a manual transmission, e.g. cars with 5 gears.
- Automatic: In an automatic transmission, gears are not required to be changed manually.
5. Based On Drive :
- Left-hand drive
- Right-hand drive
6. Based on Driving Axle :
- Front-wheel drive
- Rear-wheel drive
- All-wheel drive
7. Position of Engine :
- Engine in Front – Most vehicles have the engine in the front. Example: most cars,
- Engine in the Rear Side Very few vehicles have an engine located in the rear. Example: Nano car.
Major Parts Of The Automobile
- Power unit,
- Transmission system.
An automobile is made up of mainly two units, which are Chassis and a Body :
|“Frame” + “Base components” = “Chassis”|
|“Chassis” + “Body” = “Vehicle”|
The frame is the skeleton of the vehicle. It serves as a mainstay and base for alignment for the chassis.
Types Of Frame
- Conventional frame.
- Semi integral frame.
- Integral or untidiest frame.
If the frame contains base components it is called a chassis. There are components such as an engine, radiator, clutch, gearbox, silencer, road wheels, fuel tank, wiring, differential unit, etc.
The body is the superstructure of the vehicle and is tied to the chassis.
Types Of Body
- Delivery van,
- Bus, etc..,
4. Power Unit
An engine of the internal-combustion type mounted with accessories for use in the portable operation of mechanical equipment.
5. Transmission system
Simply put, a car transmission is the gearbox of a vehicle. This is almost the same as gear shifters and chain systems that use bicycles.
It is the most important part of the engine in an automobile. A clutch is used to transfer rotational motion or torque from one shaft to another when required. The torque developed by the engine at initial speed is very less. Therefore it is impossible to start the engine under load.
Hence a device that is used to connect and disconnect the engine from the transmission system is called a clutch. This allows the load to take off slowly when sufficiently powered, thereby preventing the jerky motion of the vehicle, and it avoids undue stress on the vehicle as well as the passengers.
Application Of Clutch
- Automobile Use – Heavy vehicles, four-wheelers such as cars, trucks, buses, Two-wheelers, mopeds, scooters, and bikes.
- Industrial Use – Metal stamping, Pressworking, Packing machines, Indexing tables, Assembling machines, Printing machines, Conveyor belts, Pumps, and Gear drives.
A gearbox (transmission system) is a mechanical device used to increase the output torque or change the speed (RPM) of a motor. The shaft of the motor is connected to one end of the gearbox and, through the internal configuration of the gears of the gearbox, provides output torque and speed determined by the gear ratio.
Need Of Gearbox
To maintain engine speed under all conditions of load and vehicle speed, the gearbox uses a system to maintain engine speed, While sacrificing the same road speed. In order to multiply torque as well as drive the engine faster to the on-road wheels, a gearbox is needed.
Types Of Gearbox
- Manual Transmission
- Sliding Mesh Gearbox
- Constant Mesh Gearbox
- Synchromesh Gearbox
- Automatic Transmission
- Hydramatic Transmission
- Torque Converter Transmission
- Epicyclic Gearbox
The Electronic Ignition System uses electronic controls that replace the electromechanical components used in previous generation vehicles. This creates an electrical impulse and supplies it to the spark plug to ignite the air-fuel mixture. Electronic ignition does not use the same electromechanical parts as older systems.
However, it uses an electronic switching device that sends an electrical impulse to the spark plug and thus ignites the fuel. Electronic ignition can also maintain correct ignition timing. And at the same time it gives continuous output of high current.
Application Of Electronic Ignition System
- It is commonly used in modern hypercars.
- It is mainly used in Audi, Mahindra XUV, KTM bikes, Ducati, and many more.
- It is also used in aircraft engines.
A vehicle’s engine cooling system serves not only to keep the engine cool but to keep its temperature warm enough to ensure efficient, clean operation. System components include a radiator to remove heat, a fan or fan to ensure adequate airflow for radiator cooling and a thermostat valve that opens when the desired operating temperature is reached and circulates coolant through the engine. A water pump (or coolant pump) too. and other components.
Need Of Cooling System
- Remove excess heat from the engine.
- Maintain a constant engine operating temperature.
- Raise the temperature of the cold engine as soon as possible.
- Provide a means for the operation of the heater (heating the passenger compartment).
A lubrication System is usually done to reduce friction between surfaces that slip on each other by applying lubricants on them. Engine lubrication is the process in which metal parts are separated by the flow of lubricating substances between them. Lubricants are available in liquid, solid, or gas, but the liquid is the most common form of lubrication used in engines.
Need For Lubrication System
We all know that when two surfaces move relative to each other, there will be friction between them. Heat will be generated on the surfaces due to friction which contributes to energy loss. Friction and its undesirable effects affect the engine as they also have running parts. This results in engine failure and can also make it a victim of failure. Lubrication is mandatory to avoid all these problems.
There are various names used for universal joints such as universal coupling, U-joint, Cardan joint, Spicer, or Hardy Spicer joint. Universal Joints are mainly used to create a flexible connection between two rigid shafts at an angle. A Universal Joint is a joint or coupling that connects rigid rods whose axes are bent to each other and are commonly used in shafts that transmit rotary motion.
Application Of Universal Joint
- Universal joints vary based on their material composition, hub type, and the applications for which they are designed, it is a positive mechanical joint that is used for connecting shafts.
- Universal Joint is most commonly found in the propeller shaft of rear-wheel drive cars.
- Specific applications of universal joints include aircraft, appliances, control systems, electronics, Instrumentation, textile machinery, medical and optical equipment, radios, weapons, sewing machines, and tool drives.
The differential allows each rear wheel to turn at different speeds. During cornering but at the same time, it gives equal torque to each wheel when both wheels have the same traction. A system of gears in the differential arrange in such a way that it connects the propeller shaft to the rear axle. The difference in a word intends to provide relative movement to rear wheels.
Need Of Differential
The differential allows the non-steering wheels to rotate at different speeds so the car can corner without putting undue wear on the tires. The wheel on the inside of a turn moves a shorter distance compared to the outer wheel. If the axle does not allow the wheels to turn independently of each other, the tire of one wheel will be pulled across the ground.
The front axle uses to carry the weight of the front part of the vehicle as well as to facilitate steering and absorb shocks due to road surface variations. It is made of I-section in center position while the ends are made either circular or elliptical with construction. It takes bending loads and also torques due to braking of the wheel.
Necessity Of Front Axle
It is necessary to carry and to support a part of vehicle weight and facilitate steering and absorb road shocks as well as torque applied to due to braking of the vehicle. And some times it transmits torque from the differential to the drive wheels.
Aerodynamics, from the Greek δήει air (air) + διαμι (dynamics), is a branch of dynamics that deals with studying wind speed, especially when it makes contact with a solid object, such as the wing of an airplane.
Aerodynamics is a subfield of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, and many aspects of aerodynamics theory are common in these fields. The term aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, with the difference that “gas dynamics” applied to the study of the motion of all gases are not limited to air.
Modern aerodynamics dates back only to the seventeenth century, but aerodynamic forces have been used by humans in sailboats and windmills for thousands of years, and images and stories of flight appear throughout recorded history, such as the ancient Greek narrative of Icarus and Daedalus. The fundamental concepts of continuity, drag and pressure gradient appear in the work of Aristotle and Archimedes.
Understanding the wind speed around an object (often called the flow field) enables the calculation of the forces and moments acting on the object. In many aerodynamic problems, the forces of interest are the fundamental forces of flight: lift, drag, thrust, and weight. Among these lift and drag are aerodynamic forces, i.e. forces due to airflow on the solid body.
The calculation of these quantities is often based on the assumption that the flow field behaves as a continuum. Continuum flow fields are characterized by properties such as velocity, pressure, density, and temperature, which can be functions of spatial position and time.
These properties can be measured directly or indirectly in aerodynamic experiments, or calculated from equations for conserving mass, momentum, and energy in airflow. Density, velocity, and an additional property, viscosity, are used tRead More Articles :
An automobile, by name auto, also called a motorcar or car, is usually a four-wheeled vehicle designed primarily for passenger transportation and usually powered by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. An automobile is a self-propelled vehicle that has a source of power for its propulsion and is used to carry passengers and goods to the ground, such as cars, buses, trucks,
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