What is Automobile – Types, Components, Structure, Diagram


Automobile, by name auto, also called motorcar or car, is usually a four-wheeled vehicle designed primarily for passenger transportation and usually powered by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel.

What is Automobile?

An automobile is a self-propelled vehicle that has a source of power for its propulsion and is used to carry passengers and goods to the ground, such as cars, buses, trucks, etc.

Types Of Automobile

Types Of Automobile
Types Of Automobile

1. On the Basis of Load :

  1. Heavy transport vehicle (HTV) / heavy motor vehicle (HMV)
  2. Light transport vehicle (LTV) / Light motor vehicle (LMV),

2. On the Basis of Wheels :

  1. Two wheeler vehicle. Example : Scooter, motorcycle, scooty.
  2. Three wheeler vehicle. Example : Autorickshaw,
  3. Four wheeler vehicle. Example : Car, jeep, trucks, buses.
  4. Six wheeler vehicle,

3. On the Basis of Fuel Used :

  1. Petrol vehicle, e.g. motorcycle, scooter, cars.
  2. Diesel vehicles, e.g. trucks, buses.
  3. An electric vehicle that uses a battery to drive.
  4. Steam vehicle, e.g. an engine that uses a steam engine.
  5. Gas vehicles, e.g. LPG and CNG vehicles, where LPG is liquefied.

4. Based on Transmission :

  1. Conventional vehicles with a manual transmission, e.g. cars with 5 gears.
  2. Semi-automatic
  3. Automatic: In an automatic transmission, gears are not required to be changed manually.

5. Based On Drive :

  1. Left-hand drive
  2. Right-hand drive

6. Based on Driving Axle :

  1. Front-wheel drive
  2. Rear-wheel drive
  3. All-wheel drive

7. Position of Engine :

  1. Engine in Front – Most vehicles have the engine in the front. Example: most cars,
  2. Engine in the Rear Side Very few vehicles have an engine located in the rear. Example: Nano car.

Components Of Automobile

  1. Frame,
  2. Chassis,
  3. Body,
  4. Power unit,
  5. Transmission system.

An automobile is made up of mainly two units, which are Chassis and a Body :

“Frame” + “Base components” = “Chassis”
“Chassis” + “Body” = “Vehicle” 
Components Of  Automobile
Components Of Automobile

1. Frame

The frame is the skeleton of the vehicle. It serves as a mainstay and base for alignment for the chassis.

Types Of Frame

  1. Conventional frame.
  2. Semi integral frame.
  3. Integral or untidiest frame.

2. Chassis

If the frame contains base components it is called a chassis. There are components such as an engine, radiator, clutch, gearbox, silencer, road wheels, fuel tank, wiring, differential unit, etc.

3. Body

The body is the superstructure of the vehicle and is tied to the chassis.

Types Of Body

  1. Car,
  2. Truck,
  3. Tractor,
  4. Delivery van,
  5. Jeep,
  6. Bus, etc..,

4. Power Unit

An engine of the internal-combustion type mounted with accessories for use in the portable operation of mechanical equipment.

5. Transmission system

Simply put, a car transmission is the gearbox of a vehicle. This is almost the same as gear shifters and chain systems that use bicycles.

Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics, from the Greek δήει air (air) + διαμι (dynamics), is a branch of dynamics that deals with studying wind speed, especially when it makes contact with a solid object, such as the wing of an airplane.

Aerodynamics is a subfield of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, and many aspects of aerodynamics theory are common in these fields.

The term aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, with the difference that “gas dynamics” applied to the study of the motion of all gases are not limited to air.

Modern aerodynamics dates back only to the seventeenth century, but aerodynamic forces have been used by humans in sailboats and windmills for thousands of years, and images and stories of flight appear throughout recorded history, such as the ancient Greek narrative of Icarus and Daedalus. The fundamental concepts of continuity, drag and pressure gradient appear in the work of Aristotle and Archimedes.

(What is Automobile?)

Fundamental Concept

Understanding the wind speed around an object (often called the flow field) enables the calculation of the forces and moments acting on the object.

In many aerodynamic problems, the forces of interest are the fundamental forces of flight: lift, drag, thrust, and weight. Among these lift and drag are aerodynamic forces, i.e. forces due to airflow on the solid body.

The calculation of these quantities is often based on the assumption that the flow field behaves as a continuum. Continuum flow fields are characterized by properties such as velocity, pressure, density, and temperature, which can be functions of spatial position and time.

These properties can be measured directly or indirectly in aerodynamic experiments, or calculated from equations for conserving mass, momentum, and energy in airflow. Density, velocity, and an additional property, viscosity, are used to classify the flow fields.

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FAQ’s

Automobile, by name auto, also called motorcar or car, is usually a four-wheeled vehicle designed primarily for passenger transportation and usually powered by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel.

Automobiles have huge varieties of vehicles, for example, cars, buses, trucks, bikes, etc.

“Automobile,” a classical compound derived from the ancient Greek auto (αˈσσσ) “self” and Latin mobile “running,” entered English from French and was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897.

The automobile can be considered as consisting of five basic components :

  1. engine or power plant: it is the source of power.
  2. Frame and chassis: It supports the engine, wheels, body, braking system, steering, etc.
  3. Transmission that transmits power from the engine to the wheels of the car.

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