What Is Clutch? – Types, Working, Application, Diagram

A clutch is a mechanical device that engages and shuts off the transmission of power, typically from the drive shaft (driving shaft) to the driven shaft. In the simplest application, the clutch connects and disconnects two rotating shafts (driveshaft or line shaft).

What Is Clutch?

What Is Clutch Diagram
Clutch Diagram | @What Is Clutch

The Clutch is the most important part of the engine in an automobile. A clutch uses to transfer rotating motion or torque from one shaft to another shaft when requires. The torque developed by the engine at the initial speed is very low. Therefore it is impossible to start the engine under load.

The Clutch is the most important part of the engine in an automobile. A clutch uses to transfer rotating motion or torque from one shaft to another shaft when requires. The torque developed by the engine at the initial speed is very low. Therefore it is impossible to start the engine under load.

Hence a device that use to engage and disengage the engine from the transmission system is called a clutch. It is permits the gradual taking of load when adequately operated, thereby it prevents jerky motion of the vehicle, and this avoids undue strain on the parts of the vehicle as well as passengers.

Parts Of Clutch

Parts Of Clutch
What Is Clutch

1. Flywheel

The flyWheel is an integral part of the engine, which also use as a part of the clutch. It is a driving member and connects to the pressure plate of the clutch shaft is houses with bearings in a flywheel. The flywheel rotates as the engine crankshaft rotates.

2. Pilot Bearing

The pilot bearing or bushing press into the end of the crankshaft to support the end of the transmission input shaft. The pilot bearing prevents the transmission shaft and clutch disc from wobbling up and down when the clutch releases. It also assists the input shaft center of the disc on the flywheel.

3. Disc Plate

It is the driven member of the single-plate clutch and line with friction material on both surfaces. It has a central hub with internal splines to limit the axial travel along the splined gearbox driving shaft. This helps to provide damping actions against torsional vibrations or variations of the driving torque between engine and transmission.

A disc Plate is a plate between flywheel and friction or pressure plate. It has a series of facings inverters on each side to enlarge the friction. These clutch facings are made of asbestos material. They are highly worn and heat resistant.

4. Pressure plate

The pressure plate is made of special cast iron. It is the heaviest part of the clutch assembly. The main function of the pressure plate is to establish even contact with the driven plate facing through which the pressure springs can exert a sufficient force to transmit the full torque of the engine.

The pressure plate presses the clutch plate on to the flywheel from its machined surface. Between the pressure plate and clutch cover assembly, pressure springs are fits. The pressure will be withdrawn from the flywheel whenever release levers depress by the toggle or release levers pivots accordingly.

5. Clutch cover

The clutch cover assembly bolts to the flywheel. It consists of a pressure plate, release lever mechanism, clutch cover, and pressure springs. Generally, the clutch plate revolves with the flywheel. However, when the clutch has disengaged, the flywheel, as well as the pressure plates, are free to rotate independently from the driven plate and driving shaft.

6. Release levers

These pivots on pins to the clutch cover, their outer ends locate and positions on pressure plate legs, and the inner ends are projecting towards the clutch shaft. A careful and accurate adjustment of the release mechanism is one of the most important factors governing the performance of a clutch assembly.

7. Clutch shaft

It is a component of the gearbox. Since it is a splined shaft to the hub of the clutch plate, which is sliding on it. One end of the clutch shaft attaches to the crankshaft or flywheel and the other end connects to the gearbox or forms a part of the gearbox.

Working Of Clutch

Working Of Clutch
Working Of Clutch – What Is Clutch

It is is defined as a system that is used to connect or disconnect the engine from the rest of the transmission elements. It is located between the engine and gearbox. During normal running and stationary position, it is always in the engaged condition.

It is disengages when the driver processes the clutch pedal. The clutch disengages for starting, changing gears, stopping, and idling. When the clutch engages, the engine will connect to the transmission, and power flows from the engine to rear wheels through a transmission system When the clutch disengages by pressing the clutch pedal, the engine will disengage from the transmission. Thus, the power does not flow to rear wheels while the engine is still running.

Types Of Clutch

1. Single Plate Clutch

1. Single Plate Clutch - What Is Clutch
1. Single Plate Clutch – What Is Clutch

single plate clutch has one clutch plate. This clutch works on the principle of friction. It is the most common type of clutch used in motor vehicles. The clutch primarily consists of two members, one mounted on the driving shaft and the other on the driven shaft.

2. Multi Plate Clutch

2. Multi Plate Clutch - What Is Clutch
2. Multi Plate Clutch – What Is Clutch

The multi plate clutch uses multiple clutch plates to make contact with the engine flywheel to transfer power between the engine shaft and the transmission shaft. A multi-plate clutch used in automobiles and machinery where high torque output is required.

3. Cone Clutch

3. Cone Clutch - What Is Clutch
3. Cone Clutch – What Is Clutch

The cone clutch is a type of friction clutch that has cone-shaped frictional areas. These types of clutches are commonly used in synchromesh and epicyclic gearboxes.

Cone clutches were the first to be used in automobiles and they continued to be popular, because of this simplicity, throughout the 1920s, when they gave way to single plate clutches, due to the poor working characteristics of the former.

4. Centrifugal Clutch

4. Centrifugal Clutch - What Is Clutch
4. Centrifugal Clutch – What Is Clutch

A centrifugal clutch is a type of clutch that uses centrifugal force to connect two concentric shafts, with the driving shaft nested inside the driven shaft. In the fully centrifugal type of clutches, the springs are eliminated altogether and only the centrifugal force is used to apply the required pressure for keeping the clutch in the engaged position.

Necessity Of Clutch

It is a device that is necessary to transmit power from the engine to the wheels of the vehicle by engaging the engine to the transmission system gradually without giving the jerks to the body of the vehicle.

Principle Of Clutch

It works on the principle of friction. In Figure, the driving shaft A with flange C is rotating at ‘N’ rpm, and shaft B with the flange D is keyed to the driven shaft which is in a stationary position when the clutch is not engaged. Now, an external force is applied to the flange D so that it comes in contact with flange C.

As soon as the contact is made, they are united due to friction between them and the flange D starts rotating with flange C. The rotational speed of flange D depends on the friction between surfaces C and D which in turn is proportional to the external force applied.

If the force gradually increases, the speed force transmitted will also increase gradually. The torque transmitted by the friction clutch depends on the pressure applied on the flange, coefficient of friction of the surface materials, and radius of the flange. By increasing any of them, the force transmitted can increases.

Function Of Clutch

  1. To allow the engagement or disengagement of gear when the vehicle is stationary and the engine is running.
  2. To transmit the engine power to rear wheels smoothly without shocks to the transmission system when the vehicle is in motion.
  3. To permit the engaging of the gears when the vehicle is in motion without damaging gear wheels.

Application Of Clutch

  1. Automobile Use – Heavy vehicles, four-wheelers such as cars, trucks, buses, Two-wheelers, mopeds, scooters, bikes.
  2. Industrial Use – Metal stamping, Pressworking, Packing machines, Indexing tables, Assembling machines, Printing machines, Conveyor belts, Pumps, Gear drives.

Requirements Of Clutch

  1. It should be able to engage gradually and positively without the occurrence of sudden jerks.
  2. It should be capable of transmitting maximum torque to the engine.
  3. The design of the clutch is such that it should ensure the dissipation of heat sufficiently which is generated during operation.
  4. It should dynamically balance to the vibration in the transmission system. It is a very important requirement in modern cars which operate at high speed.
  5. The size of the clutch should be as small as possible so that it will occupy minimum space.
  6. The suitable mechanism should incorporate within the clutch for damping of vibration and elimination of noise produces during the transmission.
  7. To reduce effective clamping load on the car thrust bearing as well as wear on it, a provision should be made for clutch-free pedal play.
  8. It must have the non-tiresome operation of disengagement for the driver for higher power transmission.

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What Is Clutch?


What Is Clutch?

The Clutch is the most important part of the engine in an automobile. A clutch uses to transfer rotating motion or torque from one shaft to another shaft when requires. The torque developed by the engine at the initial speed is very low. Therefore it is impossible to start the engine under load.

How many types of clutches?

1. Single Plate Clutch
2. Multi-Plate Clutch
3. Cone Clutch
4. Centrifugal clutch
5. Semi-centrifugal clutch
6. Hydraulic clutch
7. Conical spring clutch or Diaphragm clutch
8. Positive clutch or Dog and Spline Clutch
9. Vacuum clutch
10. Electromagnetic clutch

Where is the clutch located?

The Clutch is located between the engine and gear box.

Dual clutch transmission advantages?

1. The dual clutch transmission (DCT) Provides smooth acceleration by preventing changes in torque or gear shifts.
2. It increases the efficiency and Fuel economy compared to another automatic shifting.
3. It can handle the high torque demands of high-performance cars.
4. Switches gears much faster than others.
5. In DCT, Drivers can tell computers when to take action with the help of paddles or gearshift even with automatic engagement and disengagement of the clutch.

What is a clutch plate?

The clutch plate consists of a steel plate with a splined central hub. Annular friction facings are attached to the steel plate by rivets. The clutch plate is the driving member of the clutch and is held between the flywheel and the pressure plate. It is mounted on the clutch shaft by splines.

What are the parts of the clutch?

1. Flywheel
2. Pilot Bearing
3. Disc Plate/clutch plate
4. Pressure plate
5. Clutch cover
6. Release levers
7. Clutch shaft
8. Springs

What is the material for clutch facing?

1. Leather
2. Cork
3. Cotton fabric
4. Asbestos base materials
5. SW3-AF (non-asbestos)
6. HWK 200 (non-asbestos)
7. Raybestos and Ferodo
8. Nonasbestos clutch facing – These are made of man-made fibre yarns such as glass fibre, mixed with special rubber compound to improve frictional performance.

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