A car engine is an internal combustion engine where power is generated through the expansion of high-temperature and high-pressure gases.
Too much heat is generated due to combustion gas and mechanical past friction for continuous operation, these excess heats must be removed from the engine and kept at operating temperature.
What Is Cooling System?
A vehicle’s engine-cooling system not only serves to keep the engine cool but also keeps its temperature warm enough to ensure efficient, clean operation. The system components include a radiator to dissipate heat, a fan or fan to ensure sufficient airflow for radiator cooling, a thermostat valve that opens when the desired operating temperature is reached and a water pump (or coolant pump) to circulate the coolant through the engine. and other components.
Need Of Cooling System
- Remove excess heat from the engine.
- Maintain a constant engine operating temperature.
- Raise the temperature of the cold engine as soon as possible.
- Provide a means for the operation of the heater (heating the passenger compartment).
Parts Of Cooling System
The water pump is the heart of the cooling system that pumps the coolant. It consists of an impeller a pulley flange and an O-ring. The impeller is driven by an engine drive belt through a pulley.
The radiator is a heat exchanger used to transfer excess heat developed by the engine to the atmosphere. The radiator has an inlet port, an outlet port, a drain plug, and a radiator pressure cap.
A thermostat is a valve that controls the flow of coolant and helps maintain a proper operating temperature for the engine. The thermostat consists of a frame charge cylinder, main valve, main spring, bypass valve, and secondary spring.
Coolant Temperature Sensor
The coolant temperature sensor is used to monitor the engine temperature. The ECU will use this data to manage fuel injection and ignition times. Some engines have more than one coolant temperature sensor.
That data is also used to control the radiator fan and update the temperature gauge on the driver console. The coolant temperature sensor consists of a sensing probe and an electrical connector.
Most coolant temperature sensors have a negative temperature coefficient type which means that the resistance will decrease as the temperature increases. CTS can be a two-pin type or 3-pin type depending on the construction of the vehicle.
Working Of Cooling System
- Pistons are inside the engine block in which each of them will function.
- Above the engine block comes the head gasket which provides sealing between the engine block and engine head it avoids compression leaks and oil or coolant leaks into the cylinder.
- Above that comes the engine head the engine is having a safe passage through which the coolant can flow without entering into the cylinder or mixing up with the oil this passage is known as a water jacket.
Types of Cooling Systems
Air Cooling System
The simplest type of cooling is air-cooled or direct, the method in which heat is drawn by rotating the air in direct contact with the engine, many fundamental principles of cooling are embodied in this type of engine cooling. The rate of cooling depends on the following:
- The area exposed to the cooling medium.
- Thermal conductivity of the metal used and the volume or size of the metal in the cross-section.
- The amount of air flowing over hot surfaces.
- The temperature difference between exposed metal surfaces and cold air. liquid-cooled system.
Water Cooling System
In the water cooling system, water jackets are provided around the engine cylinder or liners. The circulating water in these jackets absorbs heat from the surface of the cylinder and then the hot water is cooled by the air passing into the radiator.
The water cooling system consists of a water jacket, water pump, radiator, thermostat valve, fan, belt, pulley, etc. Although water is the most commonly used cooling agent, special coolants have better and desired properties such as corrosion. -Free, high boiling point, etc. are also available in the market and are also recommended to achieve and marinate high engine efficiency.
Pressure Cooling System
Radiator pressure caps are used on almost all modern engines. Radiator cap locks on radiator tank filler neck make rubber or metal seal cap-to-neck joint airtight.
The functions of the pressure cap are as follows :
- The radiator filler seals the top of the neck to prevent leakage.
- Puts pressure on the system to increase the boiling point of the coolant.
- Relieves excess pressure
- re to protect against system damage.
- In a closed system, it allows the coolant to flow into and from the coolant reservoir.
- Ethylene glycol (Boiling Point 197 ° C)
- Coolant Water (Boiling Point 100° C)
- Glycerin (Boiling Point 290 ° C)
- Antifreeze (methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol )
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2. Liquid cooling system
3. Pressure cooling system
1. remove excess heat from the engine,
2. maintain a constant engine operating temperature.
3. raise the temperature of the cold engine as soon as possible.
4. and provide a means for heater operation (heating the passenger compartment).
2. freeze plugs
3. the thermostat
5. cooling fans
6. the heater core
7. the pressure cap
8. the overflow tank
9. the hoses.
4. Coolant Temperature Sensor
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